Shark biologist teams up with aerospace engineer to discover … – Phys.Org

Credit: Florida International University

Oceanic whitetip sharks move with extreme efficiency, exploiting physics to maximize their energy surplus for both hunting and downtime.

A team of scientists that included shark biologists, an and statisticians spent several years developing precise calculations based on the oceanic whitetip’s average size, swimming location, water temperatures, location of prey in the water and . The team was led by FIU marine scientist Yannis Papastamatiou, who wanted to learn more about the elusive creatures.

Oceanic whitetips reside almost exclusively in open water, making them more difficult to study than coastal sharks. Papastamatiou likens their habitat to the desert, a vast ecosystem where food is sparse. When any animal consumes prey, it gets energy. When it’s searching for prey, it’s losing energy. Papastamatiou wanted to know what behavior could maximize an animal’s energy surplus and if oceanic whitetips behaved as such. He called on Gil Iosilevskii, an aerospace engineer from Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, for some basic calculations. Papastamatiou quickly realized basic wouldn’t cut it. Iosilevskii turned to calculations he uses to determine optimal flight performance for planes.

These models predicted the optimal swim speeds for the sharks. They also predicted the sharks should dive at small angles and maintain almost constant speed throughout a dive, yet sharks are negatively buoyant meaning they naturally sink in water when they stop swimming. That makes descending easier than ascending.

The team went to the Bahamas, where oceanic whitetips are known to seasonally aggregate, and tagged several sharks with sensors to measure speed, acceleration and depth. They also attached cameras to two of the sharks they were tracking. The scientists discovered the sharks actually do swim and behave optimally, going so far as to control their speed and remain constant while ascending and

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